Chapter 4. The Papacy from Gregory VII to Boniface VIII.
The War of Investitures — Gregory VII and Henry IV. — The Mitre Triumphs over the Empire — Noon of the Papacy under Innocent III. — Continued to Boniface VIII. — First and Last Estate of the Roman Pastors Contrasted — Seven Centuries of Continuous Success — Interpreted by some as a Proof that the Papacy is Divine — Seasons explaining this Marvelous Success — Eclipsed by the Gospel’s Progress.